Destructive Stock Buybacks—That You Pay For

The monster of economic waste—over $7 trillion of dictated stock buybacks since 2003 by the self-enriching CEOs of large corporations—started with a little noticed change in 1982 by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under President Ronald Reagan. That was when SEC Chairman John Shad, a former Wall Street CEO, redefined unlawful ‘stock manipulation’ to exclude stock buybacks.

Then after Clinton pushed through congress a $1 million cap on CEO pay that could be deductible, CEO compensation consultants wanted much of CEO pay to reflect the price of the company’s stock. The stock buyback mania was unleashed. Its core was not to benefit shareholders (other than perhaps hedge fund speculators) by improving the earnings per share ratio. Its real motivation was to increase CEO pay no matter how badly such burning out of shareholder dollars hurt the company, its workers and the overall pace of economic growth. In a massive conflict of interest between greedy top corporate executives and their own company, CEO-driven stock buybacks extract capital from corporations instead of contributing capital for corporate needs, as the capitalist theory would dictate.

Yes, due to the malicious, toady SEC “business judgement” rule, CEOs can take trillions of dollars away from productive pursuits without even having to ask the companies’ owners—the shareholders—for approval.

What could competent management have done with this treasure trove of shareholder money which came originally from consumer purchases? They could have invested more in research and development, in productive plant and equipment, in raising worker pay (and thereby consumer demand), in shoring up shaky pension fund reserves, or increasing dividends to shareholders.

The leading expert on this subject—economics professor William Lazonick of the University of Massachusetts—wrote a widely read article in 2013 in the Harvard Business Review titled “Profits Without Prosperity” documenting the intricate ways CEOs use buybacks to escalate their pay up to  300 to 500 times (averaging over $10,000 an hour plus lavish benefits) the average pay of their workers. This compared to only 30 times the average pay gap in 1978. This has led to increasing inequality and stagnant middle class wages.

To make matters worse, companies with excessive stock buybacks experience a declining market value. A study by Professor Robert Ayres and Executive Fellow Michael Olenick at INSEAD (September 2017) provided data about IBM, which since 2005 has spent $125 billion on buybacks while laying off large numbers of workers and investing only $69.9 billion in R&D. IBM is widely viewed as a declining company that has lost out to more nimble competitors in Silicon Valley.

The authors also cite General Electric, which in the same period spent $114.6 billion on its own stock only to see its stock price steadily decline in a bull market. In a review of 64 companies, including major retailers such as JC Penny and Macy’s, these firms spent more dollars in stock buybacks “than their businesses are currently worth in market value”!

On the other hand, Ayes and Olenick analyzed 269 companies that “repurchased stock valued at 2 percent or less of their current market value (including Facebook, Xcel Energy, Berkshire Hathaway and Amazon). They were strong market performers. The scholars concluded that “Buybacks are a way of disinvesting – we call it ‘committing corporate suicide’—in a way that rewards the “activists” (e.g. Hedge Funds) and executives, but hurts employees and pensioners.”

Presently, hordes of corporate lobbyists are descending on Washington to demand deregulation and tax cuts. Why, you ask them? In order to conserve corporate money for investing in economic growth, they assert. Really?! Why, then, are they turning around and wasting far more money on stock buybacks, which produce no tangible value? The answer is clear: uncontrolled executive greed!

By now you may be asking, why don’t the corporate bosses simply give more dividends to shareholders instead of buybacks, since a steady high dividend yield usually protects the price of the shares? Because these executives have far more of their compensation package in manipulated stock options and incentive payments than they own in stock.

Walmart in recent years has bought back over $50 billion of its shares – a move benefitting the Walton family’s wealth – while saying it could not afford to increase the meagre pay for over one million of their workers in the US. Last year the company bought back $8.3 billion of their stock which could have given their hard-pressed employees, many of whom are on welfare, a several thousand dollar raise.

The corporate giants are also demanding that Congress allow the repatriation of about $2.5 trillion stashed abroad without paying more than 5% tax. They say the money would be used to grow the economy and create jobs. Last time CEOs promised this result in 2004, Congress approved, and then was double-crossed. The companies spent the bulk on stock buybacks, their own pay raises and some dividend increases.

There are more shenanigans. With low interest rates that are deductible, companies actually borrow money to finance their stock buybacks. If the stock market tanks, these companies will have a self-created debt load to handle. A former Citigroup executive, Richard Parsons, has expressed worry about a “massively manipulated” stock market which “scares the crap” out of him.

Banks that pay you near zero interest on your savings announced on June 28, 2017 the biggest single buyback in history – a $92.8 billion extraction. Drug companies who say their sky-high drug prices are needed to fund R&D. But between 2006 and 2017, 18 drug company CEOs spent a combined staggering $516 billion on buybacks and dividends – more than their inflated claims of spending for R&D.

Mr. Olenick says “When managers can’t create value in the business other than buying their own stock, it seems like it’s time for a management change.”

Who’s going to do that? Shareholders stripped of inside power to control the company they own? No way. It will take Congressional hearings, a robust media focus, and the political clout of large pension and mutual funds to get the reforms under way.

When I asked Robert Monks, an author and longtime expert on corporate governance, about his reaction to CEOs heavy with stock buybacks, he replied that the management was either unimaginative, incompetent or avaricious – or all of these.

Essentially burning trillions of dollars for the hyper enrichment of a handful of radical corporate state supremacists wasn’t what classical capitalism was supposed to be about.

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on Destructive Stock Buybacks—That You Pay For

Needed: An Educational Institute To Extend Dick Gregory’s Legacies

On hearing about the loss of Dick Gregory, at age 84, political analyst and former White House counselor Bill Curry said, “He was the first successful black comedian who insisted on having opinions.”

Until Dick Gregory—with his pioneering, satiric, audacious humor on stage and on national TV, which made white audiences laugh their way into reality—African-American comedians were expected “to do minstrel skits in baggy pants and outsize shoes and use slapstick humor,” in the words of Mel Watkins, author of On the Real Side: A History of African American Comedy.

Breaking through the national media in the early 1960s—from Time Magazine to the famous Jack Paar’s TV show, Tonight—Dick Gregory showed America that he could connect comedy with a myriad of important social justice causes even at the expense of his career.

Watkins describes Gregory well: “He was sharp. He was urbane. He smoked a cigarette onstage. He was very calm in demeanor but very outspoken in what he said … He brought in current political and social issues into his comedy—which was astounding to most white Americans at that time. It was during a time when blacks were considered incapable of doing this.”

Before an audience of white southern business executives, he hit at segregation, saying “I know the South very well. I spent 20 years there one night.” Unruffled by hecklers shouting racial epithets at one night club, he responded calmly that his contract with the club stipulated a $50 bonus each time someone used ‘the N word’ and invited the audience to keep on saying it. Moreover, he titled his 1964 memoir, Nigger: An Autobiography—coauthored with Robert Lipsyte—so that every time the slur was spoken, it was advertising the book which became a bestseller.

In a 2000 interview with NPR, a serious Dick Gregory said this about ‘the N word’: “Let’s pull it out of the closet, let’s deal with it, let’s dissect it. It should never be called ‘the N word.’”

One of his classic jokes that showed his wit, timing and imagery went like this: He walked into a restaurant in the segregated South where a waitress declared “We don’t serve colored people here.” Mr. Gregory replied: “That’s alright, I don’t eat colored people. Just bring me a whole fried chicken.”

But the former high school and college track star, Army veteran and father of 11 children was much, much more than a searing comedian whose humor exposed deeper truths behind inhuman conditions around the country and the world. No one showed up at more rallies, demonstrations, pickets, conducted more fasts, was arrested for non-violent protests more times—sometimes beaten and spat upon—over half a century, than this wiry, bearded advocate for a world without malice and hate.

The last time I saw Dick Gregory was in 2014. We were participating in a rally for D.C. statehood with Mayor Vincent Gray. I came to the stage and tapped him on the shoulder saying, “Mr. Gregory, is this your first protest?” He turned around and, for an instant gave me a quizzical, speechless expression, before we both broke out laughing.

In a long, front-page obituary recognizing his impact, the New York Times’s Clyde Haberman writes: “There seemed few causes he would not embrace. He took to fasting for weeks on end, his once robust body shrinking at times to 95 pounds. Across the decades, he went on dozens of hunger strikes, over issues involving the Vietnam War, the failed Equal Rights Amendment, police brutality, South African apartheid, nuclear power, prison reform, drug abuse and American Indian rights.” His commitment to civil rights did not keep him from being an opponent of all injustices, such as mass hunger and lack of universal access to health care.

Indeed, Mr. Gregory battled on all possible fronts. In 1967 he ran for mayor of Chicago to challenge longtime Mayor Richard J. Daley for his harsh crackdown on peaceful protesters. A year later he traveled the country running for president against Richard Nixon. He joined causes with John Lennon, and In 1980 he went to Tehran to try and free the U.S. Embassy officials being held by the new revolutionary regime that toppled the U.S.-backed dictator. He fasted down to 97 pounds before being compelled to leave the country.

Amidst increasingly trivial and frivolous (and not a little ageist) mass media, his formerly publicized fasts were increasingly ignored as were his other activism and actions. Unfazed, Dick Gregory became a five-day-a-week popular presence on the college campus lecture circuit and continued putting out albums and writing books.

Along with the white comics Lenny Bruce and Mort Sahl, Mr. Gregory was all about breaking taboos, defying stereotypes and combating entrenched modes of oppressive power.

Unlike other high-profile comedians, Dick Gregory refused to deliver profanities or obscenities to get his points across or to provoke his audience’s attention. He was unique, using current events and social tensions to fuel his incisive imagination.

He still has millions of fans, most of them now over 45 and some with ample discretionary income, not to mention the affluence of the leading comics for whom he paved the way. Can a determined core of Gregory devotees organize to start a center or institute in his name to extend his examples of civic courage, remarkable communication skills, and the combination of humor and steadfast seriousness that induce people to listen and open their minds? Our tense, manipulated society needs the kind of clean, contemporary new satire that such an Institute, among other purposes, can engender with a new generation of comedians showing that “in humor there is truth.”

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on Needed: An Educational Institute To Extend Dick Gregory’s Legacies

What’s Obama Waiting For?

The most popular Democratic leader by far is still former President Barack Obama. Despite this popularity,  many of the signature accomplishments of his modest legacy are being brutishly unraveled – being repealed , suspended or slated for extinction – by the Trumpsters. Donald Trump seems to revel in the destruction of consumer, investor, environmental, work and public land protections and standards. Whether at the Environmental Protection Agency, the Food and Drug Administration or the Securities and Exchange Commission, Trump’s big-business friends are running the very agencies tasked with regulating them.

Trump vehemently supports breaking the Iran nuclear accord – one of Obama’s highpoints that cooled off what could have been a rush to military conflict in that turbulent region. Abysmally ignorant about its contents, Trump is nonetheless impulsively determined to do just that in last year’s presidential campaign, alarming leading military experts.

What should Barack Obama be doing about the unfolding Trumpian nightmares dangerously enveloping so many defenseless and anxious Americans?  Tradition has it that outgoing presidents go quietly, do not assail their successor in office, if only because the latter is in a position to strike back. Already, Trump has been actively waging war against his predecessor’s legacy.

But there are many other ways in which Obama can respond without getting into a messy Twitter war with the unstable Tweeter-in-Chief. Granted, Obama is spending time laying the groundwork for his presidential library to preserve his past. It is the future of this country that needs his high profile attention. Word has it that he is working with his former Attorney General, Eric Holder, to get candidates and voters ready for next year’s crucial Congressional elections. If so, he needs to be more media-visible to get the attention of millions of people.

Here are some ways Obama can strengthen the people’s resistance to many of Trump’s destructive efforts which harm his own voters as well as those citizens who opposed his candidacy.

  1. He can raise funds to expand the staffs and programs of existing citizen organizations straining to preserve and defend conditions that help people from all backgrounds. Obama, as president, went to nearly five hundred major fundraisers outside Washington to court campaign donors. By contrast, fundraising for civic action groups, ranging from civil rights/liberties to consumer, environmental and health initiatives, will not be dissipated on gouging political consultants, empty television ads and cowardly candidates unwilling to speak truth to power.
  2. He can elevate already declared positions to block Trump and his Wall Street collaborators from words to action. For example, earlier this year over 100 outdoor-recreation companies – led by Patagonia and REI – paid for full-page advertisements telling Trump in no uncertain terms to lay off the public lands. Obama can nudge them to hire some full-time lobbyists on Capitol Hill to provide them with early alerts and guidance as the looming assault on national forests, wilderness areas and national parks gets underway. Big majorities of Americans agree with these companies, but they are not organized to focus on a handful of Senators and Representatives who need some firm education.
  3. Obama can help start new civic advocacy groups. He has close contacts with people who are very rich and share his views. For example, there needs to be new organizations filling important vacuums on such important matters as what the Trump FCC wants to do to the Internet (end net neutrality), to increase concentration of ownership in the mass media – which is already in a few giant corporate hands – and to deliberately ignore the 1934 Communications Act which conditions licenses on providing public interest programming.

There needs to be additional civic groups to propose good directions and to oppose Trump’s forthcoming reduction of taxes for the rich, and, very importantly, to organize prominent retired military, national security and diplomatic officials who are against aggressive wars and seek dynamic diplomacy to wage peace, and to move toward full Medicare for all with free choice of doctor and hospital – with more efficient and better outcomes.

The reality is that Barack Obama is a big draw. No one comes close to playing such a role. He can get big media, attract large audiences and raise large sums of money for the civic groups. The civil society has built and protected our democracy throughout history. Moreover, he can surely elevate public morale in an era of Trumpian gloom, flakery and attract new leadership to invigorate a leaderless Democratic Party down to the local levels.

If you agree, start petitions with your own ideas for Obama getting with America’s future and not just chronicling his eight year presidency’s past. His silent withdrawal has been astonishing and disturbing. He doesn’t yet realize what a historically crucial role he can play in the next few years.

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on What’s Obama Waiting For?

The 16-Year War In Afghanistan – Headlines Tell The Story

Since 2001 the US has been at War in Afghanistan – the longest war in US history. Headlines concisely tell the story of this cruel boomeranging quagmire of human violence and misery. Below are some newspaper headlines from 2010 to the present to show that a militarized foreign policy without Congress exercising its Constitutional duties and steadfast public engagement will drift on, costing our soldiers’ lives and limbs, nearly three-quarters of a trillion taxpayer dollars, hundreds of thousands of Afghani lives and millions of refugees, with no end in sight.

Here we go – year by year:

2010

Setbacks in Afghanistan Aggravate Fissures Over Obama Administration’s Review Strategy, Magnifying Differences

US Money Financing Afghan Warlords for Convoy Protection, Report Says

Afghan Base Tests US Exit Plans

In Bank Scandal, Kabul Struggles to Recover Missing Money

Afghanistan Halts Taliban Peace Initiative

US Slows Troop Pullout in Afghanistan

2011

Six Children Are Killed by NATO Airstrike in Afghanistan

Airstrike Ravages US-Pakistan Ties

In Afghanistan, a Sweeping Ambitious Effort to Gather Biometric Data

US General Defends Afghanistan Night Raids

US Secretly Met Afghan Militants

American Soldier is Convicted of Killing Afghan Civilians for Sport

Karzai: Plot Had Roots in Pakistan

Afghans Say Assistance Will Be Needed for Years

US Faces New Afghan Test

Taliban Fighters Attack Afghan Government Center

US-Taliban Peace Talks Reached Tentative Accord

Outspoken Afghan Rights Official Ousted

US General in Afghanistan Says Troops May Stay Past ‘14

US Shift May Push Afghans Into Lead Role

US’s Afghan Headache: $400-a-Gallon Gasoline

Karzai Says Foreigners Behind Afghan Corruption

2012

Under Obama a Drone Network

Police Undermine Fight Against Taliban

Taliban Suggests Peace Talks with US

France Ponders Afghan Pullout

US Drone Strikes Are Said to Target Rescuers at Sites

US Seeks to End Afghan Combat Mission in 2013

US, Afghans in Taliban Talks

Airstrike Killed Children, Karzai Says

Afghanistan Targets Flight of Cash

Taliban Gaining More Resources From Kidnapping

Iran-Afghanistan-Pakistan Summit Closes

Quick US Exit Gains Support Among Afghans

GI Kills Afghan Villagers; Children Among 16 Dead

How to Get Afghans to Trust Us Once Again

New Poll Finds Drop in Support For Afghan War

General Says Afghans Need Big US Force Beyond 2012

Afghan Officials Stress Need for Long-Term Role for US

In Poppy War, Taliban Aim to Protect a Cash Crop

A Stable Afghanistan is Still Possible

No End to Drug Traffic in Sight as US Nears Afghanistan Exit

Afghan Army’s Defiance Grows

Afghanistan Slows Huge Cash Exodus

Afghan Refugee Children Perish in Harsh Winter

In Afghan War, Dooming History to Repeat Itself

US Begins Packing Its Afghan War Gear for the Movers

Report Questions Afghan Strategy

7 Officials in Afghan Investment Agency Quit, Protesting Graft

Afghans Protest Vengeful Militias

Afghans to Spy on own Forces

Taliban Hit a Region Seen as Safest for Afghans

Away from Kabul, Wide Rift Looms Between Afghans and Americans

[Taliban] Bomb Attack Outside Afghan Mosque Kills 41, Injures 56 on Muslim Holiday

Afghanistan Says US Broke Pact on Prisons

Administration Presses to Resume Peace Negotiations with Taliban

Afghanistan Seeks Taxes from Contractors to US

2013

Anti-Torture Efforts in Afghanistan Failed, UN Says

Afghan Amnesty Program Falls Short, Leaving Ex-Insurgents Regretful and Angry

Afghanistan Moves to Curb US Forces

US Faces Fire As It Pulls Out of Afghanistan

Afghan Leader Says US Abets Taliban’s Goal

General Says 20,000 Troops Should Stay in Afghanistan

For Afghans, Peace Appears More Distant Than Ever

11 Afghans are Kidnapped While Working to Clear Land Mines

Afghanistan’s Karzai says US wants to Keep 9 Bases

Karzai’s Office Gets Bags Full of CIA Cash

Report: Millions of US Assistance for Afghan Health Projects Being Wasted

Afghanistan Karzai Officials Meet Secretly with Taliban

Taliban are Said to Attack Afghan Police

Violent Censorship on Rise in Afghanistan

Taliban Attacks US Consulate in West Afghanistan

US Forced to Take Costly Route to Move Gear Out of Afghanistan

Afghans Demand that US Admit Military Errors

US, Afghans Near Security Accord

Afghans Flee Homes as US Pulls Back

US Trains Elite Afghan Units Before Exit

Afghans Look Warily at Future Without US

Attacks on Aid Workers Rise in Afghanistan UN Says

2014

Military Plans Reflect Afghanistan Uncertainty

Tensions Between Afghanistan and US Increase As Airstrike Kills Civilians

3 Reasons for Optimism on Afghanistan

Hard Talk Aside, Little Desire by the West to Leave Afghanistan

Aid Group Sees Daunting Obstacles to Health Care for Afghans

Foreigners in Afghanistan Consider Fleeing As Attacks Rise

Killing of US General Points to Afghan Troops Troubled Past

After Losing Province in 2010, Afghan Taliban Strike Back

Taliban Attacks Kabul Airport as Vote Recount Begins

2015

The Many Failures in Afghanistan

Afghan City’s Fall to Taliban Belies Earlier American Hopes

New Refugees in a Shifting Afghan War

Afghanistan, Taliban Begin Talks on Peace

Afghan Forming Militias to Fight Against Taliban

Taliban Talks Stir Hopes for Afghan Peace

Rising Dangers and Foreign Exodus Hollow Out Afghan Capital

Afghan Gas Station Cost Pentagon $43 Million

Afghan Forces Straining to Repel Taliban Attacks

Taliban Kill at Least 22 Afghan Police Officers

Afghan Province, Teetering to the Taliban, Draws in Extra US Forces

Afghanistan, Pakistan Seek to Restart Talks with Taliban

CIA Runs Shadow War Using Afghan Paramilitary Forces

2016

US to Fight Islamic State in Afghanistan

Taliban Step Up Urban Assaults, Testing the mettle of Afghan Forces

Another District in an Afghan Province Falls to the Taliban

Taliban Rejects Peace Talks with Afghan Government, Cites US ‘Occupation’

Afghan Troops Retreat Under Pressure from Taliban

From Cold War to Cold Shoulder: Russia Cools on Aiding US in Afghanistan

Afghan Refugees Shivering in Frigid Settlements

Exit Strategy for Afghanistan Fades

Taliban Militants Strike in the Heart of Kabul

Face-Off Between Strongmen Exposes Afghanistan’s Deep Political Riffs

Afghanistan’s Taliban Push into New Media

1,000 Afghans Each Day are Fleeing Their Homes

Huge Protest Against Afghan Government Brings Kabul to a Halt

Taliban Cut off Major Afghan Highway Linking Kabul to Northern Gateways

Number of Displaced Afghans Soars

US-Built Roads Take Afghanistan Nowhere

2017

US General Favors Boost in Troops in Afghanistan

Selling Trump a New Afghan Commitment

Taliban Tap New Income Stream: Collecting Bills for Afghan Utilities

U.S. Military Drops 22,000-Pound Bomb on Islamic State Forces in Afghanistan

America Keeps on Failing in Afghanistan

Taliban Seize Two More Afghan Districts in Sustained Fighting

A Peace ‘Surge’ to End War in Afghanistan

Blackwater’s Founder Wants Trump to Outsource the Afghanistan War

Joint Taliban-ISIS Attack Kills Dozens, Afghan Officials Say

Trump Finds Reason for the U.S. to Remain in Afghanistan: Minerals

No Way Out: Trump’s Crude View of Afghanistan Won’t Solve U.S.’s Longest-Running War

The final headline is as appropriate now as it was when it was printed in 2011: “Futility in Afghanistan.”

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on The 16-Year War In Afghanistan – Headlines Tell The Story

An Open Letter To OMB Director Mick Mulvaney

Dear Mr. Mulvaney,

I have been reading and listening to your remarks whenever reporters asks why you are pressing for unprecedented budget cuts in selected agencies and departments that serve people and their children who are impoverished or vulnerable to health/safety hazards, or with disabilities. Your two responses are that the programs aren’t working (with no evidence for such sweeping dismissals by one who is so privileged) and then you emphasize that you are looking out for the taxpayers who fund these programs (the taxpayers are taking good care of you!) Have you no empathy or compassion whatsoever?

But there is a more measurable inconsistency to your kneejerk ideology of corporate market fundamentalism. If you are really standing up for taxpayers, where are you on the bloated defense budget, whose military contractors and other waste have been exposed by regular internal, case-specific Pentagon audits, many GAO reports, solid investigative reporting and numerous high ranking military retirees? Don’t the taxpayers deserve your watchdog advocacy, especially since you support adding tens of billions more dollars to that runaway budget which, being unauditable, according to the GAO, is violating a federal statute enacted in 1990?

Second, what about the massive corporate welfare subsidies, handouts, giveaways and bailouts that keep much of government busy shelling our taxpayer money and tax expenditures? Why are you silent about this raid on the taxpayers, often associated with this waste, fraud and abuse, that amounts to hundreds of billions of dollars annually?

Then there is the well documented (GAO, Harvard Professor Malcolm Sparrow) commercial fraud on Medicare, Medicaid and other disbursing programs. Why are you silent, instead of standing up for taxpayers?

The answers could not be your lack of knowledge. The answers are that you will not speak truth to power, that you are a corporatist enmeshed in a hypocrisy that could be redeemable. This lack of modest courage distances yourself from realities on the ground such as your astonishing failure to accept the basis for the Meals on Wheels program serving older people living alone.

Subscribe to the Politics email
How will Trump’s administration impact you?

We suggest your visiting some of these realities around the country so that you can accrete a measure of empathy, intellectual honesty and empirical nourishment. These people will receive you with courtesy and kindness as you survey their plight, their pain, their grit in the midst of conditions you cannot imagine back in your spacious Washington offices. Some of your cuts will affect veterans and their traumatized families coping with the results back home of illegal wars of aggression such as Bush/Cheney’s invasion and continuing quagmire in Iraq.

Let’s see if you at least have the willingness to press for the expedited auditing of the gigantic Pentagon budget and its large ‘defense’ contractors with their runaway cost overruns. The Department’s past Secretaries of Defense always keep promising that compliance with federal law – as do other departments and agencies – is coming in a few years. It is always in a few years. You are, after all, Director of the Office of Management and Budget. You cannot do your job with an unaudited Department of Defense budget. Recall, for example, the Department admitted some years ago to Congress that they could not account for $9 billion spent in Iraq in the year following that invasion.

You can choose not to respond to this letter, in which case you would be true to the characterizations described above. Perhaps you will respond to similar inquiries from members of Congress not enthralled by your high-velocity glibness that does not get down to facts on the ground.

Sincerely yours,

Ralph Nader

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on An Open Letter To OMB Director Mick Mulvaney

Will The Federal Civil Service Defend Us?

As the Trump wrecking crew ramps up its destructive campaign against federal health and safety protections and social services for impoverished, disabled and vulnerable people (young and old) the latest targets of their ire are the federal civil servants who faithfully keep our government functioning here and abroad.

Mind you, the Trump wrecking crew is not going after gigantic corporate welfare programs, giveaways, bailouts and subsidies to big business. Nor are the Trumpsters going after wasteful, inflated government corporate contracts or massive billing frauds on Medicare, Medicaid or other government programs. These egregious examples of crony capitalism, so disliked by conservatives and progressives alike, seem untouchable. While disgraceful, this is not surprising; many of Trump’s nominees benefited mightily from this cronyism before coming to Washington and Trump still benefits due to his refusal to divest.

Given this state of corporatist mayhem, the important question is: Will the federal civil service hold against lawless, dangerous non-enforcement of the laws and arbitrary suspensions of ongoing programs to protect the people from corporate assaults on their safety and economic well-being?

These are tough times for career civil servants who have given their all to do the right thing and make government serve the people (if you doubt this, just read the new book American Amnesia by Jacob Hacker and Paul Pierson).

Consider civil servants’ anguish. If they keep doing their job, they’re going to be pushed to retire or be marginalized. If they do as they are illegally or wrongfully ordered to do, they are going against their conscience and undermining their oath of office.

The oath of office taken by federal civil servants is not to the president or to their cabinet secretary. It is to support and defend the Constitution of the United States. The Constitution defines the work role for federal employees (according to the Office of Personnel Management [OPM]) “to establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty.”

To further define their obligations, the Code of Ethics for U.S. Government Service has declared that civil servants must “put loyalty to the highest moral principles and to country above loyalty to persons, party or government department.”

Top civil servants are being told to freeze what they are doing or reverse course, suppressing science and take down scientifically informed websites (such as those on calamitous climate change) and suspend law enforcement –  all under the direction of Trump’s cabinet lackeys who are openly bent on serving the Fortune 500 corporations, not the Constitution. Many of these public servants are quitting rather than violate their code of ethics.

In March, as the EPA wrecking crew chief, Scott Pruitt, moved to let corporations pour more poisons into your air, water, soil and food, the head of the Environmental Justice Office, Mustafa Ali, quit. Last week, the highly regarded Elizabeth Southerland, the director of science and technology in the EPA’s Office of Water, resigned. She said that Pruitt and Trump, who are pushing a 31 percent cut in the agency’s already strained budget, are abandoning “the polluter pays principle that underlies all environmental statutes and regulations.”

Former Secretary of State (and Republican) Colin Powell, in an Op-Ed published in May for The New York Times, denounced the disabling proposed cuts that hollow out the work of diplomats and aid workers who advance peace and critical assistance to poor families in underdeveloped countries. He warned about creating “a vacuum that would make us far less safe and prosperous.” Almost certainly, in the coming months, scientists in the Food and Drug Administration will be told to back off and let inadequately tested drugs go to market for the drug industry’s gouging profits. Other civil servants will have their judgments repressed when they recommend recalling defective motor vehicles, prohibiting clear cutting in our national forests, enforcing civil and voting rights, removing certain pesticides from our food, issuing ready-to-go safety standards for travelers, enforcing safeguards for nursing home residents and implementing proper nutritional school meal recipes for children.

The Trumpsters actually want to have the best and most experienced public servants to quit. They are already retaliating against civil servants who speak truthfully of the harm to innocent people being caused by the grisly policies championed by the corporate paymasters.

Fortunately, there are outside groups already challenging in federal court the lawless Trump regime under the Administrative Procedures Act, the Freedom of Information Act and other violated federal laws. They are also defending harassed civil servants who try to bring their conscience to work.

These citizen groups – Public Citizen (see citizen.org), Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (see peer.org), The Government Accountability Project (GAP, see whistleblower.org), and numerous other organizations, including civil service retirees, are working daily to remind Trump’s tyrants that our country remains one under the “rule of law” on behalf of, by and for the people.

Those ideals need the cutting edge of organized citizens and the larger backing of focused public outrage putting heat on members of Congress. Both between and during elections, an organized and motivated public can put a stop to this vast takeover of our government by the avaricious corporate supremacists.

Remember, we vastly outnumber them. It’s easier than we are led to think when “we the people” decide to show up.

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on Will The Federal Civil Service Defend Us?

Preparing For The Impeachment Of Scott Pruitt: An Open Letter To Members Of Congress

Dear members of Congress,

In his five months as EPA Administrator, former Oklahoma Attorney General Scott Pruitt is an aggregating impeachable offense, ever giving fuller meaning to Alexander Hamilton’s Federalist 65 elaboration of what constitutes “high crimes and misdemeanors,” to wit: Impeachable offenses arise from the “abuse or violation of some public trust” and “relate chiefly to injuries done immediately to the society itself.”

Riding into office on the back of 14 lawsuits he filed against the EPA, Pruitt took his oath of office to uphold the laws of the land and promptly proceeded to do just the opposite. Using the mantra of “states’ rights” as his corporate fig leaf and wildly accusing EPA scientists of being unscientific, he has moved to “undo, delay or otherwise block more than 30 environmental rules,” according to the July 1, 2017 New York Times.

His tenure thus far at the EPA is the stuff of corporate wish lists: meeting privately with the worst industrial perpetrators of silent violence (charitably described as “pollution”) and huddling with industry lobbyists and corporate lawyers who are eager for Pruitt to dismantle his own agency ― the federal manager of environmental violence to air, water, soil and food.

Pruitt is rolling over and stifling the mission of EPA’s scientists, legal experts and other specialists to protect Americans families from pollution hot spots, which disproportionately affect low-income and minority communities.

Mr. Pruitt makes himself vulnerable, with all the ex parte contacts and corporate advisors to many serious offenses, including: a) violation of the procedures of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, b) conflict of interest rules, c) violation of both criminal and civil laws by the overreaching industry lobbyists who constitute Pruitt’s tight cadre of clenched-jawed political appointees. History provides precedents of how the boundless zealotry of new wrecking crews ultimately leads to self-inflicted wounds and scandals.

Under Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution, the president, vice president and all civil Officers of the United States “may be impeached and, if convicted by the Senate, shall be removed from office.” Scott Pruitt is in the category of a “civil Officer.”

Republicans in the House of Representatives are quite familiar with trying to impeach a civil officer. For many months prior to the November election, they were hounding, with baseless impeachment threats, John Koskinen, then-director of the IRS and one of the most honorable civil servants in a generation. So fervid and ill-tempered was their partisan zeal that they also took it out on the IRS’s budget, already lower than it was several years earlier, and cut it further to the bone. This fulminating vendetta, widely reported, has led to millions of taxpayers waiting on the phone with the IRS to get served or not be served at all. Most ironically, the Republicans assured that the woefully understaffed IRS could collect even less of the estimated $350 billion in annual unpaid taxes, thereby expanding the federal deficit they so often decry for political expediency.

Pruitt, like most captured corporatists, has ignored the objections to his policies from the 15,000 employees of the EPA, hoping that many will leave the agency and further weaken the environmental health and safety efforts that he abhors. He doesn’t want them around because he cannot rebut their scientific arguments for retaining existing standards, which would protect our environment from deadly toxins. He is also hostile to the “precautionary principle” which shifts the burden of proof to the progenitors of new chemical or particulate or gas into the environment.

When you go through the list of health standards slated for Pruitt’s abolition, you wonder whether there are any limits to his cold-blooded, corporatized agenda. So extreme is his corporate ardor that there will undoubtedly be lawless actions coming from his precipitous acts – which he rightly believes will not be subject to restraint from the Trump White House or the Republican-controlled Congress.

Pruitt’s fevered mind thinks like this: Climate change is a hoax. Methane gas, which is 40 times more harmful to global warming than carbon dioxide, should not be subject to the modest Obama-era required disclosures. The industries that are most responsible for pollution should be in charge of their own enforcement. The EPA’s already grossly inadequate budget should be cut further. Attempts to curb pollution in our air and waterways should be revoked. Pesticides like chlorpyrifos, found to be dangerous after years of study, should be pushed back for ‘reconsideration’ – in short to be shelved. Rules on methane leaks from drilling oil and gas wells should be obstructed through delays or revision.

Pruitt had a private meeting with corporate lobbyists at Trump International Hotel, which is a venue for recurring violations of the Emoluments Clause due to its Trump-enriching expenditures by foreign interests. That’s when you know that the officious Pruitt doesn’t even care about appearances, much less the perils of lawless and secretive influence-peddling that enriches President Trump’s investments.

With such arrogance, willful ignorance and a colossal incapacity to resonate with his agency’s mandated role to prevent cancer, respiratory diseases and human habitat destruction, Pruitt is heading for trouble.

His brief tenure as EPA administrator has already been defined by intensive abuse of power and the public trust, undermining the legitimacy of our government and the rule of law.

Members of Congress – Democratic and Republican – must ensure accountability for this rogue administrator. Take close note of his non-compliance with the Administrative Procedure Act and keep in mind that political ideologies will not protect your children or vulnerable relatives and friends form environmental toxins. Conservative lungs and other bodily organs are as vulnerable to pollution-bred terminal ailments and the violent effects of climate change, as their liberal counterparts.

If there was ever a time for Congressional maturity and respect for one of our founding fathers’ favorite words – posterity – now is that time.

Let’s be clear about what is at issue here. Pruitt is extinguishing life-saving and disease-preventing health standards that were vetted in open procedures, that were open to input by the commercial interested affected – which usually leads to diluting the final regulation – and which have solid scientific basis to protect vulnerable populations. Consequently, Pruitt’s rollbacks, suspensions or delays, if allowed to persist and expand, will lead loss and deprivation of American lives, including children – the future of our country – thereby increasing healthcare costs, family anguish and other disruptions of “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.”

Pruitt and his cohorts are a clear and present danger to America. He will demonstrate in the coming weeks and months how deserving he is of impeachment in the House of Representatives and conviction in the U.S. Senate. That is, if he doesn’t resign or be forced to resign due to his own cruelty, recklessness and running afoul of the law.

Sincerely yours,

Ralph Nader

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on Preparing For The Impeachment Of Scott Pruitt: An Open Letter To Members Of Congress

Will A Mega-Billionaire Rescue America From GOP’s Insurance Mayhem?

Before recommending a practical way to reverse the devastating impact of Congressional Republicans’ attempts to strip tens of millions of Americans of health insurance coverage, and the non-stop anxiety and dread that comes with such cruel and vicious legislation, note the impact of having gerrymandered (the politicians pick the voters) Washington rulers.

The arrogant Republicans in Congress have good health insurance, life insurance, pensions, salaries and expense accounts paid by you the taxpayers. This perversely has led them to drop any empathy their residual consciences might have possessed before they came to Capitol Hill – many as millionaires.

At the same time, in a country that spends well over $3 trillion a year on “health care,” the GOP’s various bills leave millions of families fearing loss of insurance, reduced coverage, larger deductibles, unaffordable co-pays and inscrutable insurance and billing fine-print trap doors. This is producing serious fear, anxiety, depression and in many cases absolute terror for sick children and ailing parents.

We have the New York Times to thank for bringing this vast human toll, day after day, night after night, to their readers. In a recent article, reporter Jan Hoffman interviews people who are wondering “whether they would be able to continue screenings and treatment.” Hoffman writes that patients “are postponing” – so as not to set up a preexisting condition –  “or accelerating major medical decisions, weighing whether to move to more insurance-friendly states” and worrying about “their own inability to control critical matters in their own lives.”

“‘I’m so done,’ moaned Cathy McPherson, 58, a retired court clerk in Sonora, CA, with hypertension … It’s what I think about all the time and I am totally burned out. They go over and over it. Can you stop? Just stop it for a little bit?’”

The Times also interviewed a psychologist, Nancy Molitor in Wilmette, IL, who describes “escalating anxiety about health care for all her patients. Many want to spend entire sessions about how to handle the stress and the feelings of fear, powerlessness, rage and frustrated paralysis.”

Perhaps Meghan Borland, who, with her husband, owns a small business in Pleasant Valley, NY, gives voice to this preventable despair in the USA most pointedly. They have a 2-year-old daughter, Amelia, receiving chemotherapy for leukemia. Meghan said, “For months it’s been: Here’s a bill, we’ll vote. No, we won’t. Now it will change. Maybe not. Will that one person in the Senate vote or not? Except for us, this is not a game.”

Well it’s a stupid, but lucrative, ideological game for the Republicans, whose various factions juggle their corporate paymasters and reactionary dogmas, as they try to give the rich and powerful another $800 billion in tax breaks at the expense of millions of their neighbors’ lives and livelihoods.

Without health insurance, about 35,000 Americans die each year; many more stay sick or injured because they cannot afford insurance to get diagnosed and treated in time. About 30 million people fall into that helpless, hurtful category.

Those tens of millions more Americans who are underinsured can barely figure out where they are covered and how much they have to pay or go without.

For the most vulnerable of these Americans, the choice is morbidly clear: pay or die.

In Canada, everybody has a Medicare card to use a system that is simple, affordable, comprehensive and universal. They hardly see a bill. They have better health outcomes, cover everyone and spend less than half per capita than does the corporate dominated U.S. that excludes tens of millions of human beings from health care. Canadians do not have the anxieties, dread or fear of losing all their personal savings or bringing financial ruin on their families, as so many Americans do.

In Canada, no one has to decide whether to take or not to take another job based on health insurance factors. They are free to choose any physician or hospital – no narrow networks, with hidden charges, in that country.

In Canada, where there is public funding and private delivery of health care, profits are not the king, people come first. The large majority of citizens, liberals and conservatives, love their health care system, especially when they hear of the horrors going on south of their border in the U.S. (Canadians need to be more alert to corporate forces trying to undermine, restrict budgets and bad-mouth their system, which is a shining example of what is possible with equitable public investment in health care).

A majority of Americans, including a significant number of conservatives, favor single payer, full Medicare for all. So do a majority of physicians and nurses, currently in thralldom to corporatist dictates.

How to get there from here? Listen to Warren Buffett, the multi-billionaire and sage from Omaha; he favors full Medicare for all as being more efficient and humane (a single payer system has far less administrative costs and billing fraud). Then he tells us the pathway to turning this whole madness and mayhem around. To paraphrase what he once said, there are only 535 members of Congress (100 senators and 435 representatives), and we’re over 300 million people. Why can’t we control these legislators?

Imagine if a very rich, enlightened person pledged $1 billion dollars to fund the organizing of a few thousand serious volunteers in every Congressional District, each having four full-time advocates. Working with these volunteers, each dedicating 300 to 400 hours a year in Congressional watchdog associations,  this watchdog initiative would immediately represent a majority of Americans. Within 36 months, with a consequential election in 2018, our country would have comprehensive, universal, affordable, simpler single payer (full Medicare for all), saving lives, livelihoods and endless family anguish and fear.

That would be quite an historical achievement for any one of numerous billionaires each worth at least $10 billion. Any takers?

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on Will A Mega-Billionaire Rescue America From GOP’s Insurance Mayhem?

Can The World Defend Itself From Omnicide?

Notice how more frequently we hear scientists tell us that we’re “wholly unprepared” for this peril or for that rising fatality toll? Turning away from such warnings may reduce immediate tension or anxiety, but only weakens the public awareness and distracts us from addressing the great challenges of our time, such as calamitous climate change, pandemics, and the rise of a host of other self-inflicted disasters.

Here are some warnings about rising and looming risks.

  1. The opioid epidemic is here now, and poised to become further exacerbated. It is the US’s deadliest drug overdose crisis ever, taking over 1000 lives a week. Even that figure is underestimated, according to a report by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). These fatalities, many of them affecting people in the prime of their life, stem from legally prescribed drugs taken to relieve chronic pain. Tragically ironic!

Congress is figuring out how to budget for many billions of dollars to combat this toll – much greater than the deaths by traffic crashes or AIDS. Republican and Democratic state officials are suing the drug companies for excessive, misleading promotion for profit. Still, the awful toll keeps rising.

  1. Cyberattacks and cyberwarfare are increasingly becoming a facet of daily life. Although IBM and other firms are trying to develop more effective defenses, the current scale of cyberattacks is “crazy”, according to specialist Christopher Ahlberg. As he said in a recent interview with the Wall Street Journal, “If you told anybody 10 years ago about what’s going on now, they wouldn’t believe it.”

Negotiations are not even underway for a cyberwarfare treaty among nations. The sheer scale and horrific implications of this weaponry seems to induce societies to bury their heads in the sand. Former ABC TV host of Nightline, Ted Koppel, discusses this emerging threat in his recent, acclaimed book, “Lights Out: A Cyberattack, A Nation Unprepared”:

“Imagine a blackout lasting not days but weeks or months. There would be no running water, no sewage, no electric heat, refrigeration, or light. Food and medical supplies would dwindle. Banks would not function. The devices we rely on would go dark. The fact is, one well-placed attack on the electrical grid could cripple much of our infrastructure. Leaders across government, industry and the military know this…yet there is no national plan for the aftermath.”

Former Secretary of Defense and CIA Director, Leon Panetta, says Koppel’s book is “an important wake-up call for America.” Yet neither he nor the enormous military-industrial complex, of which he remains a supportive part, are doing much of anything about this doomsday threat to national security. The big manufacturers are too busy demanding ever more taxpayer money for additional nukes, aircraft carriers, submarines, fighter planes, missiles and other weaponry of an increasingly bygone age.

  1. “The World is Not Ready for the Next Pandemic,” headlined a recent Time Magazine article. The authors note that the “US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ranks H7N9 as the flu strain with the greatest potential to cause a pandemic – an infectious disease outbreak that goes global.” They predict the disease could claim “tens of millions” of lives.

In between his Twitter-tantrums, President Trump approved an insanely myopic proposed budget cut of over $1 billion in the CDC’s programs used to predict and combat rising pandemics from China, African countries and elsewhere. Fortunately cooler heads may prevail in Congress, backed by some private foundations.

The number of new diseases per decade, Time reports, has increased nearly fourfold over the past 60 years. Antibiotics are being overridden by adaptive mutations of bacteria. Dr. Trevor Mundel of the Gates Foundation, asserts, “There’s just no incentive for any company to make pandemic vaccines to store on shelves.” That profit-driven rejection is exactly why government must act to produce the drugs, as the Department of Defense it has successfully done with new anti-malaria drugs in the seventies and eighties.

University of Minnesota Professor Michael Osterholm, one of the nation’s leading experts on infectious diseases, warns that for all our world-class scientists and high-tech isolation units, the US health care system is not ready for the stresses of a major pandemic. Not even close.

  1. It isn’t just Elon Musk, founder of the Tesla company, who is warning that the advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is “the greatest risk we face as a civilization.” In 2015, hundreds of other scientists, like renowned physicist Stephen Hawking, and technologists, like Steve Wozniak, signed a public letter that was a one day story, instead of an alarmed world turning it into a galvanizing event. Professor Hawking warns us: “Success in creating Artificial Intelligence would be the biggest event in human history. Unfortunately, it might also be the last, unless we learn how to avoid the risks. In the near term, world militaries are considering autonomous-weapon systems that can choose and eliminate targets.” We humans, Hawking adds, “are limited by slow biological evolution, couldn’t compete and would be superseded by AI” In short, the robots race out of control, become self-actuating and are not held back by any moral boundaries.

From Lincoln to Einstein, we have been counseled that new situations require new thinking. A massive reversal of our world’s priorities toward reverence for life and posterity, toward diplomacy and waging peace, toward legal and ethical frameworks for exploding science and technology (including biotechnology and nanotechology) must receive our focus, from families nurturing their children to the philosophers, ethical specialists, engineers and scientists pausing from their exponential discoveries to ponder the serious adverse consequences of their creations.

Our present educational systems – from Harvard Law School, MIT to K-12 – are not rising to these occasions for survival. Our mass media, wallowing in trivia, entertainment, advertisements and political insults, is not holding the politicians accountable to serious levels of public trust and societal safety. Time for new movements awakening our best angels to foresee and forestall. Do any potential leaders at all levels want to be first responders?

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on Can The World Defend Itself From Omnicide?

Detecting What Unravels Our Society – Bottom-Up And Top-Down

The unraveling of a society’s institutions, stability and reasonable order does not sound alarms to forewarn the citizenry, apart from economic yardsticks measuring poverty, jobs, wages, health, savings, profits and  other matters economic.

However, we do have some signs that we should not allow ourselves to ignore. Maliciousness, profiteering and willful ignorance on the part of our political and corporate rulers undoubtedly contribute to worsening injustice. Let’s consider some ways that we as citizens, far too often, collectively allow this to happen.

  1. Democracy is threatened when citizens refuse to participate in power, whether by not voting, not thinking critically about important issues, not showing up for civic activities or allowing emotional false appeals and flattery by candidates and parties to sway them on important issues. Without an informed and motivated citizenry, the society starts to splinter.
  2. If people do not do their homework before Election Day and know what to expect of candidates and of themselves, the political TV ads and the plutocrats’ campaign cash will take control of what is on the table and what is off the table. This leads to the most important changes a majority of Americans want ending up on the floor.
  3. Too often, you have a grievance as a consumer, worker, taxpayer or citizen and you hit the wall trying to reach someone who should be helping you. Robots, either nonhuman or human, on the telephone are of little help. Repeated failure to productively voice one’s grievances leads to alienation, anxiety and withdrawal, rather than resurgence to demand remedy.
  4. When a majority of people think their government doesn’t work for them, but instead serves the rich and powerful, people begin to forget the good that government and honest civil servants at all levels do, or can do (see Jacob Hacker’s 2016 book, American Amnesia), thereby disregarding their crucial watchdog role as citizens. In the process, they passively surrender control of government to the plutocrats and oligarchs – leading to a corporate state defined by crony capitalism. The military industrial complex and the corporate welfarists know how to extract dollars for boondoggles from our government, which is all-too-willing to turn its back on taxpayers.
  5. When people make up their minds about an ideology or politician without the facts and relinquish any willingness to hear alternative views, societies become polarized. People are stereotyped, the marketplace of ideas goes bankrupt and instances of incivility and dehumanization increase.
  6. When people constantly consume media fueled by violence, political insults, crime and celebrity misbehavior, rather than giving voice to the good that people do every day in civil society or to important points of agreement between liberals and conservatives, the way we relate to news and each other becomes needlessly skewed. This problem has increased exponentially in recent years.
  7. If people of all backgrounds feel powerless, they will be powerless. This self-perception stifles democracy and often results in people turning their blame against one another and ignoring the power structures at the root of the problem.
  8. Readers think; thinkers read. That includes learning from the mistakes of societies throughout history that wrongly believed that they were impervious to crumbling from within. In our culture of virtual reality and Twitter-length propaganda, we all too often forget the valuable lessons of past mistakes.  History is a great teacher, as anyone who has studied how the bloody World War I was triggered by a teenager assassinating an archduke in Sarajevo or how a few rulers of autocratic nations, without institutional civic and political resistance, caused the deaths of 60 million people in World War II, can attest.
  9. At this point, some readers may be wondering about the powerful people who comprise the Wall Street and Washington supremacists. Aren’t they heavily responsible for the disintegration of our society’s economic and political health? Of course. But we citizens, day after day, let them get away with actions that embolden them further through what they see as our habitual passivity.
  10. Supporting good candidates who so often lose to silver-tongued bad candidates would be a start. Given what people think of Washington politicians, tens of millions of voters are choosing bad candidates. They may want to ask themselves whether the candidates and their rhetoric they bond with are hiding cruel records and votes against the voters’ own interests. The Washington Republicans’ current effort to take away or make less affordable health insurance, even of Trump voters, is a case in point.

For a top-down analysis, read Peter Wehner’s searing column, Declaration of Disruption in the July 4, 2017 issue of the New York Times, regarding how the rulers at the top are now leading our country “toward chaos, disarray and entropy.”

Half of democracy is showing up at community gatherings, marches, meetings and elections with your fellow citizens. No one can stop you from saying yes to your neighbors, near and far, when they send you their kind invitations to meet new people, hear new ideas, and be urged to pull together for a better community, state, nation and world.

Democracy and its blessings work, but only if we don’t drop out and recommit ourselves to securing these blessings for our posterity. It’s easier than we think!

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on Detecting What Unravels Our Society – Bottom-Up And Top-Down